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Glossary
Accumulation
Another term for buying which typically takes place at the end of a market sell-off or downward trend, where the selling pressures have evaporated and the buyers have stepped in to start buying stocks in anticipation of a market reversal. This also takes place during a pause on an established upward trend – most notably as price levels show consolidation.
Bears or Bearish
A frequent term used by investors and traders that represent the people and funds that are pessimistic on the ability of the market to increase in value. When the market or a particular stock is showing bearish tendencies, that means there is heavy distribution or selling taking place. When the bears lose their sense of pessimism, the markets will then begin to start seeing heavy buying. Remember: when a person says he is “bearish”, understand that he means that he expects the market or a particular stock to decrease in value.
Breakdown
This occurs to the downside when after a period of sideways trading or trading within a range, when a stock moves down and outside of that range, it is considered to be breaking down. Often times this marks the beginning of a long-term sell-off that can provide substantial profits for those who spot the breakdown early on.
Breakout
This occurs to the upside when after a period of sideways trading or trading within a range, when a stock moves up and outside of that range, it is considered to be breaking out. Often times this marks the beginning of a long-term rally that can provide substantial profits for those who spot the breakout early on
Distribution
Another term for selling which typically takes place at the end of a market rally or upward trend, where the buying power has evaporated and the sellers have stepped in to start selling their stocks or to begin short sales in anticipation of a market reversal. This also takes place during a pause on an established downward trend, as the bears add more capital to their short positions – most notably as price levels show consolidation.
Downward Trendline
The opposite of the upward trendline, it is a line connecting a series of “lower-highs” of price levels of a particular stock. The steeper the trend line the more difficult it is to maintain the trend. A break of the downward trendline or more importantly the creation of a “higher-high” means the trend has been broken and is now either trading “sideways” or has begun a new upward trendline.
Head and Shoulders Pattern
A technical pattern used to identify a top in a particular stock. A stock will typically increase in value followed by a mild sell-off, which is the "left shoulder". Then the buyers step in to push the index to new highs, followed by a larger sell-off, that sends prices back to about where the previous low was created. At this point the "head" portion of the pattern has been created. Then finally buyers push the price of the stock back up, but instead of creating a new high, it creates a lower high, which becomes the "right shoulder" of the tecnical patter. Typically these patters take 2 to 3 months to develop or longer. What chart technicians prefer to do is draw a support line underneath the two previous lows, and any break of that support line will be a "sell signal".
Long or Going Long
A term used for buying stocks in anticipation that the stock will go up in value. This is the most traditional means of investing/trading. Its exact opposite counterpart is “going short”.
Moving Averages
The most popular averages used are the 20-day (short-term), 50-day (mid-term), and 200-day (long-term) moving averages. To compute a moving average take the closing price of any stock or index for any particular time period and find the average. For instance, if you wanted the 5-day moving average of a particular stock, and the last 5 trading sessions’ closing prices were 100, 101, 103,101, and 105, you would then add these five numbers together to get 110, then divide by 5, and you have a current 5-day moving average of 102. Each day you add the newest closing price and drop the oldest closing price, and then chart the price movement. Often times these averages represent important areas of support and resistance. For a stock to cross a significant moving average, say the 200-day moving average can cause sentiment of that particular stock to change instantaneously.
Overbought
A term that we often use to describe market conditions that have seen substantial buying for over a period of time, and as a result the bulls may not have enough capital on the sidelines to legitimately keep the rally going. A good indicator for measuring the overbought/oversold conditions of an index, ETF, or stock is by using the Stochastics. A reading over 80 is a signal that the conditions are becoming overbought, while a reading under 20 is a signal that the conditions are becoming oversold.
Oversold
A term that we often use to describe market conditions that have seen substantial selling for over a period of time, and as a result the bears may not have enough capital on the sidelines to legitimately sustain the sell-off. A good indicator for measuring the overbought/oversold conditions of an index, ETF, or stock is by using the Stochastics. A reading over 80 is a signal that the conditions are becoming overbought, while a reading under 20 is a signal that the conditions are becoming oversold.
Resistance
A price level on the charts where sellers are likely to jump in and attempt to stop a rallying stock, with increased selling power. Often this is an emotional pivot point for sellers in which as much as it is willing to sell at these levels it is also willing to cover their short positions, if there is a break of the resistance level. Resistance is also marked by time in that the more recent the resistance level, the fresher it is in the minds of sellers and the more loyal they are to it. The older the resistance level, the weaker it will tend to be. Identical resistance levels across various points of time often add increased resistance. Stop-losses are often times, placed above a resistance level, which adds to the buying/covering if there is a breach. Also note that once a resistance level is broken, and price moves beyond it, it thereby becomes a level of support for buyers.
Short Sale or Shorting or Going Short
The exact opposite of “going long”, this is a means by which the investor/trader makes money off of the stock decreasing in value. When executing a short sale, you are selling a stock that you don’t own by borrowing it from your broker and selling it on the open market. Regardless of whether the stock goes up or down in price thereafter, you have to eventually buy back the same amount of shares, of the same stock, on the open market to settle the debt between you and your broker.

Ideally, you want to buy them back for less than what you sold them for so that you get to keep the difference between the two transactions. Selling stocks short often carry a higher amount of risk since your exposure is considered “infinite” to the upside. But keep in mind that there has never been a stock that went to infinity, nor is it likely that your broker will risk not getting their shares back by letting a multi-day rally go against you without issuing a margin call. The best example of explaining this is by giving an illustration: Let’s say that you borrow your friend’s iPod, with his permission, and while the iPod is in your possession, a random person on the street comes up to you and offers to buy it from you for the current price of $300.

Knowing the iPod is an older model, and that it is likely to become obsolete in the next few months, you gladly sell him the iPod. However, while you made a cool $300 by selling something you didn’t own, you still have to return an iPod sometime in the near future back to your friend. So you go on ebay and find the exact model (and for the sake of the illustration, the exact songs on it too!) for $240. You buy that iPod and you give it back to your friend. In the process you pocketed $60 even though you never owned anything at anytime and everyone goes home happy.

Support
A price level on the charts where buyers are likely to jump in and attempt to stop a declining stock, with increased buying power. Often this is an emotional pivot point for buyers in which as much as it is willing to buy at these levels, it is also willing to sell if there is a break of the support level. Support is also marked by time in that the more recent the support level, the fresher it is in the minds of buyers and the more loyal they are to it. The older the support level, the weaker it will tend to be. Identical support levels across various points of time often add increased support. Stop-losses are often times, placed below a support level, which adds to the selling if there is a breach. Also note that once a support level is broken, and price moves below it, it thereby becomes a level of resistance for sellers.
Trading Sideways
In the absence of an upward or downward trendline, the market is trading sideways. Trading sideways doesn’t necessarily mean it is trading in a narrow range, rather it is trading without either side have a clear advantage. Thus until leadership emerges from the bulls or bears, the market trades sideways.
Upward Trendline
A line connecting a series of “higher-lows” of price levels of a particular stock. The steeper the trend line the more difficult it is to maintain the trend. A break of the upward trendline or more importantly the creation of a “lower-low” means the trend has been broken and is now either trading “sideways” or has begun a new downward trendline.
                       

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